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Growth Cycle of Hair
Hair shedding in healthy humans amounts up to 100 hairs a day; the same number of hairs grow anew. The hairs are formed in the hair roots (follicles) by keratinocytes. Each hair has a growing (anagen) phase of 2-6 years followed by a resting (catagen) phase of about 2 months and a (telogen) end-phase, during which the hair falls out. Does the loss of hair exceed the re-growth rate the hair becomes thin (alopecia) and finally baldness occurs.


The Efficacy of Thymuskin in Clinical Trials
In the three most frequent forms of hair loss Thymuskin has been shown to be effective in clinical trials. These forms of hair loss which differ in their appearance, course and causes are described below:

Congenital Hormonal Hair Loss or alopecia androgenetica
In men hair loss most commonly starts in the third decade at the front and temples progresses to the vertex of the head forming a tonsure so that finally a wreath of hair remains. In this type of hair loss Thymuskin proved to be effective in 73% of the afflicted men in form of a new growth of hair or of a hold of hair loss (1).  
In women the congenital form of hair loss occurs less frequently, in later age and in different pattern namely more on the crown of the head. All women treated with Thymuskin stated an improvement (1).  
In both genders the cause of the congenital hair loss is an increased sensitivity of the hair follicles against the sex hormone testosterone and its metabolite dihydrotestosterone, respectively.  
In an exploratory study with Thymuskin GKL 02 (2) a statistical significant reduction in daily hair loss by 45 % (p=0.01) occurred in the 18 patients treated for 9 months; by 65% in females and 36% in males, respectively, as shown in figure 2. The ratio of anagen/telogen phases of hair as determined in the trichogram increased in 19 patients with complete data for 6 months from 5.88 to 10.46 (p=0.10) as shown in figure 3.
在一個Thymuskin GLK02 (2)的探究性研究中發現,治療了9個月的18個個案身上發現他們的每日掉髮量在統計上明顯降低到45%(P=0.01);這18位病人中,分別有65%女性和36%男性,如圖2。19位病人,以毛髮圖認定的生長/休止期頭髮比例增加,6個月完整的數據從5.88到10.46()p=0.01;如圖3所示。
Diffuse Hair Loss or alopecia diffusa
In this form the hairs are thinning out rather uniformly on the entire scalp. Metabolic or hormonal disturbances, infections, stress and medications (especially anti-cancer drugs) may be the cause. In patients with breast and colon cancer under treatment with medium strong cancer drugs concomitant application of Thymuskin prevented in 41-81% largely or completely the expected hair loss (3). In cases with diffuse hair loss of other causes Thymuskin was effective in 73% (4).

Circumscribed Hair Loss or alopecia areata
Immunological disturbance are suspected as the cause since T-lymphocytes which play a role in the defense system of the body are attacking the hair follicles. An inflammation occurs which impairs hair growth and finally leads to the loss of hairs. In severe form of alopecia 65% of the patients treated with Thymuskin experienced new hair growth at the scalp and/or body whereby in 40% of the cases a complete remission occurred (5).